Volume 10 Issue 02




Mukthar V Basheer, Bennet Kuriakose | pp: 148-152 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract:Composite construction of any building construction involving when two different materials are bound together so strongly that they act together as a single unit. Because of the low self -weight, fast construction, fast repairing, high resistance to bending and deflection, high load capacity, good dynamic behaviour we select the cross-laminated timber concrete composite in floor system. The design, construction, and performance of the CLT-concrete system are dependent on timber properties, connection systems, and slab details. The construction is economical and eco-friendly because of the reduction of concrete and steel. In this study shear performance of different connections in Cross-laminated timber Concrete Composite floors are conducted. Twenty specimens were prepared as five groups and tested in this study and find the load carrying capacity of each connection. Compare the result and find the best one. Timber embedding failure, and concrete crushing failure were also observed around the shear-compression loaded screws. In this project parametric study is done in CCC with various connectors using ABAQUS software. The project summarizes the information of CCC and connection’s properties, testing and its reliability. This CLT-concrete composite possesses good performance under various loading conditions if we designed and constructed well.



Rahul Vinod, Deepa Joseph | pp: 153-157 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract:The buildings on the hills are more susceptible to shear and twisting because of the irregularity and imbalance of the structures. As a result, there is a mismatch between the rigidity and mass center. Observing the impact on an RC structure resting on a hillside is the goal of the current research. Three slopes make up the foundation of the building under consideration. Forces from earthquakes are applied to the models of buildings under consideration. On the analyzed structure models, a nonlinear static pushover analysis is conducted. The performance of the building during seismic excitations is examined in this research through the seismic analysis of an RC building situated in a hilly region.



Soju S J, Manish Jose | pp: 158-162 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract:Progressive collapse of a structure happens when significant structural load-bearing sections are suddenly removed, leaving behind failing the structural components incapable of supporting the building’s weight. It occurs when a column is removed from an existing structure to provide more space and it can also result from natural and man-made factors. Without strengthening measures, column removal will result in progressive collapse. The seismic retrofitting bracing system can be employed as a defence against the progressive collapse of multi-storey buildings.
This research looks at how various kinds of bracings affect the resiliency against progressive collapse of multistorey reinforced concrete structures. The analysis is done on G+5 and G+15 storey RC buildings using the Non-linear static method, and comparisons are made with various kinds of bracings. The model is built in SAP2000 and analysed using GSA criteria. The hinge formation pattern and displacement of joints with various kinds of bracing systems are compared using nonlinear static analysis, which is produced by the unexpected removal of major load-bearing column member of ground floor from different places.


Non-destructive evaluation of thick concrete components using the impact-echo method

S. Silpa Havela, K. Sivasubramanian, N. Ramakrishna | pp: 163-167 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract:Condition assessment of concrete structures is an important area of research. The impact echo method is one of the advanced non-destructive methods used to assess concrete integrity and identify internal defects in concrete. The method is based on the principle that transient stress waves transmitted into the concrete will get reflected by the internal flaws and back wall. This method is used to detect defects or to evaluate the thickness of sections of concrete structural elements.
In the present work, Impact echo testing has been carried out for the identification of defects in an in-house laboratory structure. For the investigation, a test floor, reaction wall and one column from the CSIR-Structural engineering research centre (CSIR-SERC) have been assessed using the impact-echo method. A one-inch grid has been adopted, data is collected along the grid line and processed using impact-echo software. From the results, it has been observed that there are no defects along the investigated grid line on the test floor. Similarly, the reaction wall and column results also indicate that the concrete is free from defects. The preliminary investigation has indicated that the structural members are made of good-quality concrete and no defects have been identified. Further, an extensive investigation needs to be carried out to identify the presence of defects in the structure.



Sreelekshmi S, Neethu Joseph | pp: 168-174 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract:In this paper the flexural performance of hybrid beam strengthened with the U-shaped SRG (Steel Reinforced Grout) composites were analytically analyzed using Finite Element software (ANSYS). The use of analytical techniques and Finite Element Software ANSYS provides a rigorous and accurate approach to investigating the structural behavior of these systems. In order to strengthen existing structures, Steel Reinforced Grout (SRG) are being used more and more. The main aim of this studies were (i) To find out the length optimization of steel reinforced grout. (ii) Splitting the optimized concrete model into four layers with compressive strengths of M30 and M20 then determine the load bearing capacity by analyzing the concrete height ratios of 1:3, 1:1, and 3:1. It can help optimize the design of such structures by demonstrating the impact of concrete height on the functionality of hybrid beams.


IoT Based Intelligent Door Lock Ingress Control System with Digital Notification

Dr. C. Pabitha, Nalina.V, Nandhini.M, Rajalakshmi.I | pp: 175-180 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract:Intelligent security control system has become necessary in daily life. Security is one of the main challenges for people who are often away from home due to their work schedules. In today’s world technological advent has not only resulted in the development of automation, computers, mechanics, robotics, industrial science, scientific knowledge but also increases the offence rate, misconduct, criminality and violation. So, there is an crucial requirement for the Security system. Hence, we have developed an intelligent door lock ingress control system. The development of a security door lock system, based on facial recognition and always-on technology, to confirm the identity of guests and control the access of doors has been reported. This article aims to provide a secure door lock system based on Raspberry pi Pico technology that integrates camera, keyboard, LCD screen, non-contact temperature sensor and metal sensor. The main purpose of this system is to access the lock when it recognizes the authorized person and when it recognizes the unauthorized person, it will take their picture by facial recognition, temperature and it also detects the presence of metal and send telegram and email notifications and allow the authorized person to authorize the person by sending OTP to the door or reject the person. The faces of authorized people are stored in Pico. This system can be useful in places like laboratories, computer areas, banks, schools, private homes, etc.


Eyeball And Head Movement Controlled Wheelchair

Shrilekha T, Vishali N, Nikhitha M, Sudha S | pp: 181-185 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract:An eyeball and head movement controlled wheelchair is a system that enables individuals with disabilities to operate a wheelchair using only their eyes and head movements. It is designed to improve the quality of life for those with limited mobility by providing them with greater independence and mobility. A study published in the Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development found that individuals with spinal cord injuries who used a head-controlled wheelchair had significantly better driving performance than those using traditional joystick-controlled wheelchairs. Research conducted at the University of Toronto found that eye-tracking technology could be used to accurately control a powered wheelchair, with users achieving an average accuracy rate of 92%. The proposed system consists of a web camera that tracks the movement of the user’s eyes and head and translates these movements into commands that control the wheelchair’s direction and speed. It is non-invasive, easy to use, and has the potential to significantly improve the lives of individuals with disabilities.


A Review of Emerging Deep Learning Methods For Image Restoration

Neeraja S, George Mathew | pp: 186-189 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract:Convolutional neural networks and other deep learning approaches have drawn a lot of attention in practically all fields of image processing, particularly picture categorization. Image restoration, however, is a fundamental and challenging problem that is important to image processing, comprehension, and representation. Image denoising, super-resolution, dehazing, and deblurring, are frequently covered. Numerous studies are being conducted in this field.Various machine learning and deep learning techniques are used for this. This paper examines various image restoration methods that focus on deblurring and super-resolution.



Amalu Joshy, Asha Alice Kulavattam | pp: 190-194 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract:Buildings with flexible floor diaphragm, rigid floor diaphragm and wood floor diaphragms are common in America, Japan and other parts of the world. Based on the in-plane stiffness assumption of floor system, SAP 2000 is used to model flexible floor diaphragm model, rigid floor diaphragm, wood floor diaphragm and steel roof diaphragm. Detailed non-linear dynamic analysis done in the models and results are compared. The seismic analysis for a six-storey hybrid structure with four different models is analyzed. The diaphragm is modelled based on the in-plane stiffness. The stiffness of the roofing material determines the seismic safety of buildings. In the time history analysis, the displacement of the four-building model is compared. Steel is more durable and with high strength characteristics compared to wood . The buildings with steel floor diaphragms tend to show high seismic safety.


Effect of Building Orientation and Window-to-Wall Ratio on HVAC and Energy Loads for Different Climate Zones in India

Priyanka Tyagi, Himmi Gupta | pp: 195-200 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract:Window-to-wall ratio (WWR) of a building is crucial parameter in energy efficiency because a substantial amount of solar heat gain happens via windows. The goal of this research is to determine the optimum WWR of an institutional building. A baseline model is simulated in eQUEST software to investigate the HVAC and total annual energy consumption of the building for five climate zones of India. One representative city from each climate zone was considered for this study. The WWR was varied from 0-80% with a 10% step increase, and the HVAC and total energy consumption was simulated for East, West, North and South orientations of the building in each climate zone. For all climate zones and for all ranges of WWR, the HVAC and total annual energy consumption was observed to be minimum in East-West orientation when compared to North-South orientation. While, the optimum WWR varied from 10-40% for different orientations and climate zones.



Monisha G, Saranya S, Rubha Shri V, Ritika G, Dhrisya S | pp: 201-204 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract:Women safety is a major concern in order to prevent the women harassment. The Women Safety Envelope Project is a proposal for a technology-driven solution aimed at enhancing Women’s safety in various environments. The project involves the development of an envelope-like device that can be worn or carried by Women, which contains several features that can alert emergency services and deter potential attackers. This device will include a fall detection sensor to measure the amount of deflection produced on the surface. Additionally, the envelope will have an in-built GSM and GPS tracker that can pinpoint the location of the user, making it easier for emergency responders to locate them. The envelope will also include SLM sensor used to voice activation with high decibel.


Gesture Controlled Switch for Home Automation

Disha Das,Sanyukta Chetia, Kalyan Bora, Histodeep Phukan, Swapnadeep Kalita | pp: 205-207 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract:Fully automatic systems for home automation are used everywhere now a days. In this paper, a fully automatic switch is built which can be controlled by hand gesture. The wireless switching method tries to overcome the frequent short circuit problems by eliminating the need for touching a switch to turn it on and turn it off. The gesture-controlled switch uses an ultrasonic sensor which senses the hand gestures to turn on and turn off the home appliances like light, fan, television, fridge etc.


Study on Rammed Earthen Walls Retrofitted using Natural Fibers

Aarathi Prabha S | pp: 208-213 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract:According to today’s trend buildings are built with architectural elevations and more aesthetic beauty. Modern architectural buildings are expensive, so here comes the scope of rammed earthen houses which can be built with architectural elevations within our budget. In the present study rammed earthen walls retrofitted using coir fibre with bamboo splints and banana petiole strip framed strengthening technique is investigated. Rammed earthen walls are generally thick and bulky, built by compacting sand- soil matrix in successive layers inside a rigid temporary formwork. In previous research, only the strength performance of earth rammed walls were analysed, which was found not satisfactory. But earth rammed walls which are retrofitted and contains coir fibre content as reinforcement and was not studied widely. So, the earth rammed walls when reinforced with coir fibres and retrofitted with bamboo splints will improve the load bearing capacity of the built-up structure. Thus, this investigation is carried out to determine the mechanical properties of fibre reinforced retrofitted earth rammed walls.


Review of Reasoning Methods for Video Question Answering

Archana K S | pp: 214-218 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract:Now a days in the field of Computer Vision there is an emerging challenging and complex task named as Video Question Answering (VQA). VQA retrieve spatial and temporal information from the video and then it will be interpreted. The methods that are used to implement VQA have been extended from the methods of Image-QA. The main difference between Image QA and VQA is that VQA have to process both the motion information as well as the appearance information. Therefore multi-step reasoning is used for VQA. There are mainly four category of reasoning methods are there. The first category of reasoning implements spatial and temporal attention mechanism. This will iteratively select useful information for answering questions. But the problem is that they do not consider relationship between different objects. The second category of reasoning methods are memory based networks that are previously used in Text QA and Image QA. But when they perform multistep reasoning neglect the visual relation information. The third category perform relational reasoning through relational network. But they can only model a limited number of objects. The fourth group of reasoning methods are based on GNN. GNN is more powerful and flexible than relational reasoning. So more researches are coming in this field. This survey reviews a number of methods that belongs to different reasoning methods. These methods shows recent advancement in VQA.



VASANTH.M.M, SARATH KUMAR.B, SUBRAMANI P.K, Dr.M. ANURADHA | pp: 219-229 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract:Everyone is aware that the forest is one of the most important and necessary resources and that forest fires pose a constant threat to biological systems, features of systems, and the environment. The necessity to identify forest fires as quickly as possible is urgent because the identification of forest fires has grown to be a crucial problem in the pre-suppression process. This literal work has made a strong case for the skilled use of wireless sensor networks as a plausible explanation for the cause of forest fires. To complete the solution process, the suggested system relies on a variety of sensors that are attached to it as well as data from these mediums of wireless communication. These sensor data are transmitted by the devices that are used for detecting the early occurrence of fire in the rich forest and alerting the fire department as well as the forest department, who will examine and prevent the situation as early as possible.


Design and Implementation of an Autonomous Robot for Safe and Efficient Food Delivery in Hospitals

Prapti Salaskar, Savio Pullkotil, Shivam Shrimal | pp: 230-234 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract:In recent years, the demand for autonomous robots in healthcare settings has increased, particularly after the COVID-19 pandemic. Traditional methods of food delivery in hospitals, requiring staff to transport meals to patients’ rooms manually, can be dangerous in isolated hospitals where people infected with highly contagious diseases are treated. This paper details the design and virtual implementation of Transbot, a robot that acts as an intervening medium between doctors and patients infected with communicable diseases. It can autonomously navigate to any required location while simultaneously recognizing and avoiding obstacles, ensuring safe and efficient delivery of meals to patients’ rooms. It is also equipped with the Rocker Bogie mechanism, allowing it to navigate between floors of a hospital with ease.



Fathima Parveen p, Asha Alice Kulavattam | pp: 235-241 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract:Cold-formed steel (CFS) is made by rolling or pressing thin sheets of steel at room temperature. This process of cold-working the steel allows it to be formed into a variety of shapes and profiles, while maintaining its strength and structural integrity. The resulting CFS sections can be used in a variety of construction applications, such as framing systems for buildings, bridges, and other structures. The protective coating that is applied to the CFS helps to prevent corrosion and extend the lifespan of the material. Overall, the good strength to cost ratio of CFS makes it an attractive option for many construction projects. While cold-formed steel (CFS) has many advantages in terms of strength-to-weight ratio and ease of construction, its use in seismic regions is limited by its low ductility and energy dissipation capacity. This is due to the low local/distortional buckling resistance of thin-walled CFS elements, which can lead to premature failure under seismic loading. Extended end-plate moment connections are commonly used in CFS beam-to-column connections in seismic moment-resisting frames. These connections are designed to be moment-resistant, which means they are able to resist the bending forces that occur during an earthquake or other seismic event.


Introduction of Biomimicry into Construction of Budget Houses

Ben Eapen Philip, Fahma Khadeeja, Pooja Reju, Sravan Vinayak TJ, Mr. Manish Jose | pp: 242-247 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract:In this project, we are aiming to put forward an efficient plan introducing elements of biomimicry into the construction of budget houses with alternative materials other than conventionally used materials. The materials used are V Boards, Aerocon Panels, Structural Steel and Fabrication steels. Concrete slabs using corrugated sheets are also used as an alternative. Moreover, as a biomimicry element, concept of air cooling from termite moulds are introduced. Also, funicular concrete roofing is done which is another biomimicry element. Honeycomb skylights are also used as an element of aesthetics. Comparison between a conventionally built house and house built alternatively by our concept is done to prove house built by our concept is more cost-efficient and energy efficient.



Anandhu V.A., Abey Vishnu Narayana, Jose M.J. | pp: 248-261 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract:Wrought heat treatable aluminum magnesium silicon alloys per AA 6061-T6 are of medium strength and have excellent weldability compared to high strength aluminum alloys. This class of alloys is therefore widely used in ship frames, storage tanks and aircraft applications. It is not possible to use all kinds of aluminum manufacturing processes. Because most aluminum alloys are hardened, fusion welding cannot be applied because the high heat generated during the process will cause them to lose some of their properties, making them unable to perform their intended function. In 1991, the Welding Institute (TWI) invented a new technology in the welding process and named it Friction Stir Welding (FSW). FSW is a solid-state welding process in which parts are joined together at a solidifying temperature. The strength of the weld is affected by the grain size and the tensile strength of the core region of the weld. Therefore, an attempt was made to develop an artificial neural network and predict a data set related to the FSW engine and process parameters. Experimental relationships to predict grain size and tensile strength of frictional AA 6061-T6 aluminum alloy welds. The empirical relationships are developed by a fully factorial design. A linear regression relationship was also established between grain size and weld core tensile strength of FSW joints.


Numerical Study on Thermal Performance and Flexural Behaviour of Slim Floor Beam with Hollow Core Slabs using Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer

Agnes Manoj1, Deepa Joseph | pp: 262-272 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract:Slim Floor Beams are steel sections inserted in a concrete slab that provide the benefits of a steel-concrete composite structure with a shallower floor depth, resulting lighter in weight. Composite slim-floor beams can be utilized in conjunction with a variety of floor components, such as profiled steel deck or precast concrete slabs. One of the most intriguing typologies is created by combining the slim-floor beam with precast hollow core slabs. Steel-concrete composite beams are used in buildings and industrial structures, which are much stronger and stiffer. It is a well-known and effective solution that enables both simple installation of technical equipment and a significant reduction in floor thickness. it is mostly used in the expanding market for open-plan workplaces and multi-story parking structures. This study focuses on using Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer as an I-Beam instead of a steel beam, along with a bottom steel plate welded to the lower flange of the I-beam. The thermal performance and structural behaviour of Slim Floor Beam with Hollow Core Slabs are investigated using a finite element model created with ANSYS. The modal parts consist of CFRP I – beam, bottom steel plate, precast concrete slab, concrete encasement, reinforcing bars, and concrete topping. Here, two hollow core slabs were supported on the bottom plate, and between them a reinforcing bar and concrete encasement, along with concrete topping provided. The analysis strategy chosen is thermal and structural analysis, which is done to find thermal performance during a fire and structural behaviour in load-bearing capacity. Based on this study CFRP I – beam increases load carrying capacity and enhancing fire resistance.



Manicka Raja M, Kolanthaivel S, Vikash S R, Sabareeswaran S | pp: 273-277 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract:Farmers face challenges in connecting with customers and selling their produce directly due to lack of access to appropriate technology and infrastructure. At the same time, customers face difficulties in finding and purchasing fresh, locally sourced produce from reliable sources. Additionally, transportation and logistics are often major barriers to the efficient and timely delivery of produce from farms to customers. Access to essential food items such as cereals, pulses, and other grains can be a significant challenge for those living in remote areas, who often need to travel long distances to purchase them. In addition, unpredictable availability of these products in physical stores can lead to frustration and wasted time. To address these challenges, there is a need for a technology solution that enables farmers to connect with customers directly and efficiently, and that facilitates reliable and affordable transportation of produce from farms to customers. This paper proposes a web application that helps users find the nearest shop that stocks the desired products within a minimum transportation distance, reducing transportation costs and time consumption.


Design and Analysis of Axial Flow Compressor Blade Profile using Optimized Airfoil Geometry for Maximum Aerodynamic Performance

Adarsh Aare, Joyal Dsouza, Dhruvika Solanki, Maitrik Patel | pp: 278-281 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract:Increase in efficiency of axial for compressor has been quest for a long time among researchers. And the efficiency of blade of these compressors can be widely varied by type of airfoil being used. Generally, the airfoil model presented by Nasa is used which have found to be efficient and reliable. Here an attempt has been made to have some modifications to the airfoil and then the modified airfoil has been compared with standard airfoil to check the effectiveness of modification. Further in the paper the lift and drag coefficient is compared to standard airfoil which is the principal characteristic of a blade along with pressure distribution along the surface of the compressor blade observed. A standard Naca 64168 airfoil was modified by manipulating the airfoil the airfoil profile. The blade of the later stage of compressor was simulated therefore chord of the blade was taken to be 10cm. Ansys and xflr software was used which are widely used software for simulation purpose in the industries. It was seen that the desired characteristics were obtained which supports to increase the efficiency of axial flow compressor.



Akash S, Vishnu S Nair | pp: 282-291 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract:Stir casting is a liquid state casting technology in which a mechanical stirrer is used to mix two different materials to produce castings with good mechanical properties. When it comes to the fabrication of aluminium-based alloy it is an economical and flexible process. Aluminum alloy A356 is frequently used in the automotive and aviation sectors as cast components with various section sizes due to their high strength-to-weight ratio and thixotropic structure. Its rigidity and specific tensile strength are better to those of other aluminium alloys and can further be improved by alloying with various elements. These characteristics result in light weighted cars and planes and improved fuel efficiency. The stir casting parameters play a significant role in producing alloys with good mechanical properties like ductility, strength, elongation, hardness, and toughness. In this paper an effort has been made to analyze the effects of stir casting parameters on the mechanical properties of A356-alloy based systems which have great demand in the modern industrial sectors. Tensile test, hardness test and microstructure analysis were conducted to evaluate the influence of casting parameter on respective mechanical properties. Optimum parameters for casting process were identified from the test results.