Volume 10 Issue 02

2023

 

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON LIGHT TRANSMITTING TRANSLUCENT CONCRETE PANELS

Grinita George, Dr.Tilba Thomas | pp: 1-8 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract: Conservation of energy is an essential need in building sector. The overall building energy consumption is approximately 36 % of world’s total energy consumption.Inorder to reduce the necessity of artificial lighting during day time which leads to higher energy requirements, development of novel materials which can be used by the construction sector is essential. In this article, development of translucent concrete panels by embedding plastic optic fibres which is capable of transmitting light from one end to the other is proposed as a unique solution to this issue.Behaviour of concrete and mortar panels of 5 cm and 3 cm embedded with plastic optic fiber were examined and compared.The concrete and mortar panels and cubes were embedded with 1.5 mm diameter plastic optic fibres in 6% volume ratio. The mortar panels embedded with optic fibres were able to exhibit lesser cracks and better surface finish. The light transmittance performance of translucent concrete was evaluated by using lux meter in different angles and using different colour bulbs. The results obtained has proved the utility of translucent concrete as an energy efficient substitute material which can be successfully utilized in sustainable constructions and also for the development of green buildings with minimal energy requirements.

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STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF STEEL FIBRES ON REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS WITHOUT STIRRUPS

Anjana Binoy, Jinta John | pp: 9-11 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract: Reinforced concrete beams are structural elements that designed to carry transverse external loads. Stirrups are mainly provided for holding the primary reinforcement of beam. It prevents the buckling of beam and protect the RCC structure during seismic activity. The addition of steel fibres to concrete has significant effect of tensile strength and modulus of elasticity. The steel fibres were added of different percentages by total volume of beam. Different shapes of steel fibres were added. It have the advantages of saving time, money, and labour. Steel fibres are provided for improving the flexural strength of concrete beam without the need of stirrups. Different shapes of steel fibres provide increased coverage and excellent bonding to reduce cracking.

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LSTM-RNN Based Identification of Fake Profile in social media

Abirami S, Abinaya S, Divya Sruthi R, Gurupriyadharshini R | pp: 12-18 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract: The increasing prevalence of fake profiles in social media has become a major concern for users and platform operators alike. In this work, we propose an LSTM-RNN based system for fake profile identification in social media. Our model is trained on a large dataset of real and fake profiles, allowing it to learn the patterns and characteristics that distinguish between them. The performance of our model was evaluated on a validation dataset and found to be highly accurate.

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EXPERIMENT AND SIMULATION STUDY ON REINFORCED GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE SLAB UNDER IMPACT LOADING

S. Krishna Kumari, Minna Roselin Cherian | pp: 19-36 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract: Geopolymer concrete is an eco-friendly material that has the potential to replace conventional cement-based concrete. Geopolymers are inorganic aluminosilicates and can be used to replace cement. In this study, Geopolymer concrete is produced by mixing Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS), Fly Ash (FA), Silica Fume (SF), alkaline mixture, fine aggregate, and coarse aggregate. Strength is imparted to geopolymer concrete through polymerization in alkaline media. The alkaline solution consists of NaOH and Na2SiO3 in the ratio of 1:2.5. A proper geopolymer mix was selected by testing among multiple sets of cube, cylinder, and prism specimens of different geopolymer mixes. The Geopolymer Mixes selected were 50% GGBS + 40% FA + 10% SF, 60% GGBS + 30% FA + 10% SF, 70% GGBS + 20% FA + 10% SF, and 80% GGBS + 10% FA + 10% SF. Each mix was cast for three molarities 8M, 12M, and 16M of NaOH solution. 70% GGBS + 20% FA + 10% SF mix with 16M NaOH solution (Na2SiO3/NaOH =2.5:1) showed the best performance in terms of compressive strength and flexural strength. It was found that the compressive strength and flexural strength increased with molarity. The splitting tensile strength increased with an increase in GGBS percentage. Workability decreased with increasing molarity. All Geopolymer Concrete (GPC) mixes showed better performance than M30 mix conventional concrete. Hence 70% GGBS + 20% FA + 10% SF mix with 16M NaOH solution was selected for further study of the GPC slab. Five Reinforced Geopolymer Concrete (RGPC) slabs were casted and their dynamic performance were studied under impact loading. A series of drop hammer impact tests were carried out to investigate the impulse of RGPC slabs under a single impact. The variation of the peak impact force of slab under varying drop heights and varying reinforcement ratios were studied experimentally. The impact force’s time history and the slab surface’s failure characteristic were recorded. In addition, a parametric study was conducted using numerical models based on the finite element method (FEM) considering parameters: drop height, reinforcement ratio, depth of slab, and location of impact. The study observed that RGPC has the potential to replace concrete as a structural material.

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Design of an Electronically Tunable CMOS Band Pass Filter

Manish Rai, Raj Senani, Abdhesh Kumar Singh | pp: 37-41 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract: This paper presents a CMOS band pass filter (BPF) design having provisions for independent electronic control of center frequency and bandwidth both. The topology is based upon the employment of two current feedback operational amplifiers which are currently finding favor of analog designers as an alternative to the classical voltage mode op-amps because of several advantages ofered by them. A CMOS voltage controlled floating resistance circuit is the other key element which has been employed to replace the center-frequency-controlling and bandwidth-controlling resistors in the considered configuration. The usefulness of the proposed design has been varified by the simulations on CADENCE SPICE by implementing the complete circuit using a CMOS CFOA alongwith the CMOS VCRs with 0.18µm CMOS technology parameters. Simulation results are given to estabilish the viability of the proposed design.

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DESIGN OF AN ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDING : A SUSTAINABLE APPROACH

Aswathy Mohan, Arjun R Nair, Jibin Mathew Saji, Aiswarya V Aji | pp: 42-46 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract: The project aims at the design of an energy efficient building taking into consideration of various criteria’s. The preliminary objective of this paper is to reduce the energy consumption of an existing building with minimum cost, wastage and environmental impacts. Passive Energy Management principles are adopted to achieve the sustainable design of the building. Steps to be undertaken are as follows – choice of appropriate software, incorporating the concept of building orientation, building envelop design, passive solar design and energy performance analysis with various factors like climate, site conditions, building use and space allotted.

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REPLACEMENT OF COARSE AGGREGATE USING WASTE CERAMIC- MARBLE PIECES,FINDING DURABILITY

Broziageorgevarghese | pp: 47-51 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract: As a result of the expanding growth and innovation in the construction industry around us, natural aggregate prices have increased tremendously. Solid waste production from building demolitions has also increased significantly. Studies show that a portion of the waste marble-ceramic tile production facilities create is changed and thrown.This waste material ought to have been put to better use in order to reduce building waste and deal with the limited supply of natural aggregate. Electric insulators, sanitary fittings, ceramic tiles, uneven bricks and other materials that are commonly wasted throughout the building and development process are all easily recycled in the construction industry. Similar to how ceramic-marble wastes can also be used as a partial substitution for coarse aggregate, ceramic tile powder can be utilised as a fine aggregate. Both coarse and fine aggregates can be substituted with crushed waste ceramic -marble and crushed waste ceramic tile powder. Here, marble-ceramic waste broken tiles were used to replace 0 percent, 20 percent, 40 percent, 60 percent, 80 percent, and 100 percent of the coarse aggregates. This experimental study looks into the viability of employing waste ceramic tile in concrete in addition to the coarse ceramic tileM30 was created and tested for this. Broken tiles were substituted for coarse aggregates and cement at varying percentages to construct the mix design for various types of mixes. Workability, compressive strength, split tensile strength, and flexural strength tests for various concrete mixes including varied amounts of crushed garbage have been completed after 7, 14, and 28 days of curing. Conditions for durability are also being tested. It has been found that workability increases as the percentage of broken tiles replaced increases. When ceramic-marble coarse aggregate is utilised, the strength of concrete can be increased by up to 80%.

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STUDY OF FOAM CONCRETE SLABS WITH REINFORCED MESH

Eldho Mathew Abraham, Jinta John | pp: 52-56 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract: Foamed concrete, Foamed concrete, also known as foamed concrete or lightweight concrete, the composition mainly are water, cement, fine aggregate, fly ash, etc. It is made by processing various admixture materials. When making, the materials are processed through physical or chemical methods. Light-weight aerated concrete (LAC) is produced by addition of a gas-forming admixture like aluminium powder (AP) to a wet mortar mixture. In concrete during curing, AP will react with the calcium hydroxide in the mixture to form hydrogen. The amount of gas-forming is dependent on the mechanical properties’ requirements. Because of its light weight, good thermal insulation performance, sound insulation and fire resistance, good overall performance, low elasticity and shock absorption, strong waterproof performance, convenient production and processing, good environmental performance, convenient construction, etc. it is mostly used as slope-finding for roof insulation, ground insulation cushion, foundation pit feeling of upturn beams, precast wall a, infill panels and wall pouring. The study with lightweight slabs is investigated in three cases – (1) LWC slabs with steel wire mesh reinforcement, (2) LWC slabs with fiber mesh reinforcement, (3) LWC slabs with combined fiber mesh and glass fiber. In this study, performance of slabs in different mesh reinforcement is monitored. This study is focusing on the formation of lightweight slabs with suitable and sustainable reinforcement.

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ANALYSIS OF CONCRETE FILLED CFRP TUBE

Aparna Jacob, Aivin Thambi, Vishal Thomas, Aalfiya Haris, Mariamol Kuriakose | pp: 57-61 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract: Reinforced concrete is used as a structural material for construction of buildings, harbours and dock piles in many marine locations. Structures located in coastal regions frequently suffer from corrosion phenomena. Corrosion is one of the basic factor that constitutes the degradation of reinforced concrete (RC) structures. The ingression of chloride ion into the RC structures leads to the premature failure of in-service structures. A study on structural performance deterioration of marine RC structures affected by rebar corrosion in Kozhikode was conducted. To address this vexed question, Concrete Filled CFRP tubes (CFCFRP Tubes) can be introduced in marine regions due to its superior corrosion resistance. CFCFRP tubes are composite members which consists of a hollow CFRP tube infilled with concrete. In this structure CFRP tube provides lateral confinement to concrete core. At the same time, the concrete core prevents the CFRP tube from local buckling. In this study, the comparative analysis of RC Column, Concrete Filled Steel Tubes (CFST columns), CFRP Ring Confined CFST columns and CFCFRP Tubes is done by considering buckling and dynamic loading in ABAQUS Software. From these results it can be concluded whether CFCFRP Tubes can be used as piers in marine environment. Considering the future scope, CFCFRP Tubes can also be used as piles in offshore structures.

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SUSTAINABLE CONCRETE WITH SALINE WATER AND GROUND GRANULATED BLAST FURNACE SLAG (GGBS)

Aleena Fathima, A.P. Prasanthi, Aiswarya Sivan, Lijumon, Dr. Elizabeth C Kuruvilla | pp: 62-66 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract: To conserve fresh water and make concrete production more sustainable, a study was carried out by using seawater and brine as the source of water and Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag (GGBS) as partial replacement of cement. Concrete samples having five different percentages of cement and GGBS contents were separately prepared with normal tap water, brine, and seawater. The seawater was obtained from Kovalam in Kerala. Compression and Rapid Chloride Permeability Test (RCPT) tests were conducted and their performance was analyzed and compared. The results obtained show that brine and seawater have higher compressive strength when compared to the potable water sample. The reduction in carbon footprint by the use of GGBS as part replacement of cement was also found in the study.

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A Review of Fake News Detection in Social Media: Techniques and Challenges

Anju K S, Ashfana K N, Sajal Saumian, Alex Jose, Anumol Antony P R, Deepasree Varma P, Soosan Francis | pp: 67-72 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract: Fake news has become a major issue in social media, posing a significant threat to the spread of misinformation and social unrest. The detection and prevention of fake news have thus become a crucial research area, leading to the development of various techniques and algorithms. This paper presents a comprehensive review of fake news detection in social media, highlighting the different types of fake news, detection techniques, and challenges faced by researchers. The study emphasizes the importance of understanding the characteristics of fake news and the role of social media platforms in their spread. It further discusses the various techniques used for fake news detection, such as machine learning, natural language processing as well as their strengths and limitations. The review also identifies the challenges of detecting fake news, such as the lack of labeled datasets, the dynamic nature of social media, and the diversity of languages used. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of future research directions and the need for collaboration among researchers, social media platforms, and policymakers to combat the spread of fake news.

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Synthesis and characterization of Al-ion battery material as a potential substitute to Li-ion battery material

Advaith Kaikini, Nishant M. George, Dalton Pinto, Reghu. V. R | pp: 73-77 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract: Li-ion battery is the most popular secondary battery at present. Introduced in the market three decades ago, it is still facing many challenges. Difficulties in handling due to its high reactivity, environmental and over-heating issues, power density and energy density related challenges are some of them. Moreover, the limited global supply of Lithium demands substantial and sustained research works to find a substitute for lithium that possesses the desired electro-chemical characteristics to serve the battery materials research field. After extensive literature survey on synthesis of anode materials, a potential anode composite material was identified that comprised of a compound based on antimony (Sb), graphite(C) and aluminium (Al). The chosen composition was weighed accurately and ball milled for 60 hours with the goal to synthesize a newer material phase by mechanical alloying. Samples were removed after ball milling for 20 hours, 40 hours and 60 hours. In order to characterize the change in the ball milled powder particle morphologies with ball milling time, the particles were analyzed with respect to milling time by using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM); phase change if there was any was assessed by X-Ray diffractometry (XRD), and the homogeneity of the composition based on the progressive milling was inspected by using Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) associated with the SEM. The electronic conductivity is expected to increase when the particle size becomes finer and the composition becomes homogeneous. The results showed very encouraging morphological changes with progress in milling time. The samples will go through electronic conductivity test using an impedance analyser, and the suitability as an electrode for a high capacity secondary battery would be analysed at later stages in this research work and are not included in this paper.

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Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Engineering and Technology: A review

Ajay Verma, Nisha Singhal | pp: 78-82 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract: The 21st century has witnessed remarkable advancements in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI), leading to its rapid evolution and widespread adoption across various sectors, particularly engineering and technology. This literature review delves into the key applications of AI in these fields and explores how AI algorithms have been employed to improve various systems and processes, resulting in increased efficiency and cost savings. The use of AI algorithms in autonomous systems, smart manufacturing, medical imaging, cybersecurity, energy management, robotics, natural language processing, predictive maintenance, traffic flow optimization, and healthcare chatbots are the focus of this review. The applications of AI in these areas demonstrate the diverse and wide-ranging impact of AI in engineering and technology, ranging from improved diagnosis and treatment in healthcare to enhanced communication and transportation efficiency. AI has transformed engineering and technology by augmenting the efficiency and effectiveness of various systems and processes. The integration of AI algorithms in these fields has the potential to greatly improve the efficiency of transportation, reducing travel times and enabling patients to access healthcare information and services more easily and efficiently. The use of predictive maintenance algorithms in engineering systems also ensures that faults are detected before they lead to equipment breakdowns, ultimately increasing the lifespan of machines and equipment. In summary, the applications of AI in engineering and technology have significant potential to enhance the way we live and work, and to create new opportunities for innovation and growth. The adoption of AI algorithms in these fields is undoubtedly reshaping the future of these industries, promising increased efficiency, cost savings, and improved quality of life for individuals and businesses alike. It is clear that AI will continue to play a vital role in shaping the future of engineering and technology, and we are only beginning to scratch the surface of its potential.

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Residual compressive strength & probability failure of locally corroded tubular steel columns

Dhanish Nameer P, Mariamol Kuriakose | pp: 83-89 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract: The Steel structures can undergo a natural process called corrosion, which can compromise their safety and durability. Given the inevitability of corrosion, it is crucial to evaluate the load-carrying capability of corroded structural components. This study aimed to investigate the impact of localized corrosion on the load-bearing capacity of tubular steel columns subjected to eccentric compression, by conducting parametric finite element analysis and examining the effects of the degree of volume loss (DOV) due to corrosion damage along the column on its residual compressive strength. Additionally, the reliability of corroded steel tubes was evaluated using normal distribution in MATLAB, to estimate the probability of failure and assess the risk of failure.

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Recent Advances in Rotavator to Enhance its Performance

Partha Sarathi Singha, Avinash Kumar | pp: 90-96 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract: India constitutes 10 % of the world’s tractor market share whereas in implements only 1 % market share of the world is held by India. Among implements, the rotavator is one of the highest-sold implements by volume. Hence advancement and improvement in the performance of rotavator operation are of importance via the advancement of technology. Currently, there have been such advancements and the products are available in the market to increase the performance of the rotavator. This study segregates the current advancement in rotavator technology into two sections namely mechanical advancements and instrumentation-based systems. Mechanical advancement technology includes multiple shaft rotavators that intend to reduce the operation time and achieve the pulverization level with a single pass. Another technology is the multi-rotor gear system, wherein the drive ratio is changed manually or through a shift lever to provide different rotavator blade RPM for different crop and soil conditions to attain desired performance. There has also been a lot of development in the design of blades which is covered in this study since rotavator blades pulverize the soil. Hence it is an important mechanical part that directly interacts with the soil. In an instrumentation-based system, a digital rotavator system has been studied indicating the optimal zone of operation with rental and serviceability parameters intended to improve pulverization, achieve high field capacity, and less fuel consumption. There has been a study to indicate the ratio of the peripheral speed of the rotavator and the forward speed of the tractor through instrumentation to improve the pulverization over the current practice. This paper intends to present a study on the current rotavator products being developed which are presently in operation to have a whereabouts and comparison of the recent trend in the advancement of the technology, the way forward, and the amount of improvement from the earlier practices.

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Decentralized Network of Public Distribution System Using Blockchain

Dr. C. Pabitha, Logesh N , Kiran Kumar D ,Kishore N | pp: 97-101 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract: The effort each farmer takes to produce food grains has to be appreciated and we should minimize the wastage of food grains. To solve the problem of wastage of food grains in Fair Price Shops due to factors like poor storage, transportation or poor management, we’ve been working on Decentralized Public Distribution System using blockchain. By this we might able to track from where the food grains have been purchased and how it is transported and stored. Also we can track it up to how it reaches the public. By tracking this we can come to an idea of how to not waste food grains and also audit it properly. This will create an impact in the traceability of food grains so that we will be able to minimize the wastage of food grains during the supply. This will also point out the suspicious activities that takes place in the supply chain. This application also helps to audit the food chain and store transactions in an organized manner. Everyone will be accountable for the food grains they’ve wasted and they’ll try to act more responsibly than before. This idea will also make the existing system more secure, advanced and automated.

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NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF PHASE CHANGE MATERIAL BASED BATTERY PACK COOLING

Samin Mohamed, Fauzan Ahmed, Richu Thomas, Alberto William Donald, Anshul Kashyap, Punit Kongi | pp: 102-109 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract: This study examines the use of paraffin as a phase change material (PCM) with various concentrations of graphene nanoparticles for cooling battery packs using numerical and experimental methods. To test their impact on battery cooling, we specifically added 100 grams of paraffin and utilised 1%, 5%, and 10% graphene. The primary objective of the study is to assess the thermal performance of a battery pack using PCM-based cooling at various discharge rates. To simulate the cooling process, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was created, and experiments were run to confirm the numerical findings. The study’s findings demonstrated how greatly adding graphene nanoparticles improved the PCM-based cooling system’s ability to transfer heat. As the percentage of graphene in the battery pack increased, the CFD simulations projected a drop in temperature, which the experimental data confirmed. The 10% graphene combination in particular produced the finest cooling results. The work offers insightful knowledge into the planning and improvement of PCM-based battery pack cooling systems, with the utilisation of graphene nanoparticles as a potent boost. The findings can be utilised to create battery cooling systems for a variety of uses, such as electric vehicles and renewable energy storage systems.

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Smart shut or sleep mode and vision protection in system

Praveen Kumar, Prem Prakash, Ayush Kumar, Sudhanshu Kumar, Vipan Kakar | pp: 110-114 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract: There are a lot of features in our system(laptop/desktop) where no change has been made for long time and need to be upgraded ,like TOT (time out timer) to make the system go into sleep mode, and no proper energy saving algorithm based on detection of the outside world. This paper presents the system with an idea and implementation that outsmart the previous technology still in use. Computer vision being one of the branches of artificial intelligence that teaches and equips machines to comprehend the visual environment has many applications in today’s world and can offer lot in this as well. Digital images and deep learning models may be used by computers to precisely detect, categorize, and respond to things. Based on that, our ideas make the system capable of preventing person from coming very near to screen thereby preventing eye strain, taking smart decision to shut down the system if someone left the system running (even if movie is playing) and forget to shutdown. Not letting the system to go into sleep mode if anyone is there and looking (reading) at screen. These all features as a result somewhat also help in safety of the system, prolong the system’s life and save energy. Looking at the world report on vision by WHO, there are billions of people facing eye issues and many of that could have been prevented as per the report, so these features could have also helped at base level to at least reduce this number by prevention.

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EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS ON FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM WITH RECYCLED RUBBER

Jeena Joshy, Dr. Tilba Thomas | pp: 115-119 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract: Fiber reinforced recycled rubber beam can offer a perfect solution to meet the demands of sustainable structures with superior strength and flexibility. It combines rubberized concrete, steel fiber and percentage replacement of rubber and steel fiber to enhance the strength, stability, durability and overall performance. This paper presents the results of recent experimental investigations on rubberized concrete. Chipped and crumbed tire rubber particles were used to replace coarse and fine aggregate with varying percentages of replacement levels. The replacement levels selected were 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% by volume of the coarse and fine aggregates. Steel fibers were also added to the concrete mix to improve the performance of the concrete. The mechanical and fracture properties of the rubber concrete were examined. The optimal replacement ratio of the rubber particles have also been analysed to meet the strength requirements and fracture criteria.

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Experimental analysis of R134a Vapour Compression Refrigeration System by using permanent magnetic field at liquid line

K.Surya Prakash, K.S.N.S.D Yaswanth, K.G.S. Dhatta Sai, M. Manoj Bhushan, P. Tejo Murthi | pp: 120-126 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract: This paper represents experimental investigation carried out to study the effect of magnetic field on energy savings in vapour compression refrigeration system. By applying magnetic field at liquid line, atomization of the fluid will takes place and reduces the specific volume of the fluid molecules. The reduction in specific volume of fluid molecules leads to drop in the viscosity that reduces the pumping power required by compressor as well as increases heat transfer in vapour and condenser due to raised mass flow rates of the refrigerant. The COP was initially measured without application of magnetic field, and then magnetic field applied to liquid refrigerant in different positions. The strength of each magnetic pair was 100gauss. By the impact of magnetic field by the magnetic pair in different positions at liquid line, the COP increased upto 41.36% for R134a refrigerant when compared to simple VCR.

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Design of Tubular Pass Solar Air Heaters

Disha Dewangan, Jasinta Poonam Ekka | pp: 127-134 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract: Solar energy is inexhaustible and has a strong affinity to give surplus power among other sources of renewable energy which is received on the surface of Earth. The study focused on the design of tubular-type solar air collectors where the tubes are placed adjacent to each other at an equidistance of 10.08 mm and are made from a conductive material like aluminium. The parameters of design namely size and volume flow rate from an air heater are estimated by assuming that it gives a maximum efficiency of 35% with a flow rate of 0.0125 kg/s. The other parameters like the equivalent diameter of the duct, number of tubes, Reynold number, frictional effect, pressure drop, and power consumption by fan used in tubular type solar air heater are evaluated for an airflow rate of 0.0125 kg/s. The diameter of tubes used in the tubular solar heater is selected based on the heat removal factor and it is available in standard size here it is considered as 38.1 mm for analysis. The newly designed solar air heater maximizes the usage of solar energy in the tubular absorber surface and gives a maximum temperature of the air at the exit.

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Laser Powder Bed Fusion of Steels: Processing, Mechanical Properties, Microstructure, Defects, Control Methods and Current Challenges – A Review

Athul B, Alwin S Joseph, Amal M, Vishnu M R | pp: 135-144 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract: The most versatile metal additive manufacturing technology, known as laser powder bed fusion, has been shown to produce geometrically challenging, high-performance metallic objects in near net shape with up to 99.9% relative density in a shorter amount of time. The most common engineering materials utilized for structural and sub-structural applications are steels and iron-based alloys. Steels have distinguished themselves from other metallic materials thanks to their availability in more than 3500 grades and a variety of qualities, including high strength, corrosion resistance, good ductility, low cost, and recyclability. However, the LPBF process for steels and iron-based alloys has not yet been fully adopted in industrial applications because there is little information about the processing conditions currently available, there are no specific materials standards, a lack of knowledge to correlate the process parameters, and there are other technical challenges like part variability, dimensional accuracy from a design model to an actual component, limited feedstock materials, and manual post-processing. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the steels and iron-based alloys used in the LPBF process by summarizing their key process parameters and microstructure evolution during solidification, as well as highlighting metallurgical defects and potential control methods, all of which have a direct impact on mechanical performance.

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Effect on the Performance and Emission of Hydrogen Enriched Diesel in a CI Engine

Manish Kumar Singh, D.B.Lata, Vinay Prakash Chaudhary, Saurav Kumar | pp: 145-151 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract: In the last few decades, the rate of fossil fuel consumptions have increased drastically, causing severe environmental challenges. So, it is very important for us to consider of a sustainable eco-friendly alternative fuel. In such, use of hydrogen as an alternative fuel can be done due to its special properties like wide range of flammability, zero carbon content etc. This research work is based on 5% hydrogen addition in diesel at 3.5 kW rated power with a constant speed of 1500 rpm. This research is carried out on single cylinder, 4-stroke, water cooled, CRDi diesel engine at 0-80% load. The conclusion of this research was that the NOx emission increases compared to diesel fuel, but particulate matter decreases significantly. CO emission decreases with 5% hydrogen addition in diesel. NO emission decreases at low load conditions with hydrogen addition but at higher load it increases slightly. CO2 decreases at low load condition with hydrogen addition in diesel. HC decreases at higher load with hydrogen addition in diesel, but at low load condition, it increases slightly. Brake thermal efficiency increases at higher load condition with hydrogen addition in diesel. Brake power and BSFC for 5% hydrogen addition in diesel however showed slight difference in performance at varying load conditions.

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Impact of Watershed Development Programme on Productivity and Benefits Cost Ratio of Crops: A Case Study of the Itagi Watershed in Karnataka

Dr.Palakshappa K, Sneha M K | pp: 152-158 | Download Paper | Show Abstract

Abstract: In India, a large portion of rain-fed land has low productivity, is at high risk, has little exposure to technology, and is vulnerable to the degradation of natural resources. Watershed Development Programmes (WDP) have been started in India to improve the production and sustain the ecology in dry and semi-arid areas by adopting appropriate technology in production and conservation, along with fulfilling the basic necessities of communities for food, water, and shelter. In the present study area of the Itagi watershed, various types of water and soil conservation structures, such as contour bunds, check dams, farm ponds, recharge pits, earthen checks, rubble checks, etc., were constructed in an area of 4636 hectares under ‘Sujala’ WDP during the year 2004. The total costs of these soil and water conservation structures were Rs. 356.6 lakhs, including administrative costs of Rs. 19.81 lakhs. The present paper reveals the impact of WDP on crop area, productivity, and benefit-cost ratios of various crops. The analysis of the data illustrates that after the implementation of the WDP, the productivity of various crops has increased by 16–80%, the area of cultivation has increased, and the benefit-cost ratio for all the crops has increased.In addition, many more benefits, like a change in cropping pattern, groundwater recharge increment, reduction in soil erosion, increased employment opportunities, etc., were also noticed.

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